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Learn More. Lack of power in relationships has been offered as an explanation for why women do not always engage in safer sex behavior with male partners. However, few studies have empirically tested the association between power and free live sex Newport behavior.
Power was measured by education, employment, decision making, perceived alternatives to the relationship, commitment to the relationship, investment in the relationship, and absence of abuse in the relationship. The sample comprised Puerto Rican women, aged 18—35 years, attending a find love Pasadena TX free health clinic in the Bronx, New York, who were at risk for heterosexual transmission of HIV. Women who were currently employed and those who were more committed to their relationships reported less HIV-related communication.
Condom use was predicted by shorter length adult dating Akron OH the relationship, more education, current employment, less investment in the relationship, and more HIV-related communication. An examination of data on of sex partners suggests that women may be at risk for heterosexually transmitted HIV not because they have multiple partners, but because they are having unprotected sex with male partners who do Diaz et al.
Hispanic woman looking for sex Wilmington may be at especially high risk of acquiring HIV heterosexually because Hispanic men may be more likely than men of Atlanta racial and ethnic groups to good date restaurants Laredo multiple sex partners Choi et al.
Currently, the most effective method for preventing the transmission of HIV from men to women is the male condom, which requires the cooperation of male partners. The literature suggests that condom use among women with high-risk partners is low and inconsistent Campbell and Baldwin, ; Catania et al. Qualitative research has suggested that many high-risk women do not feel efficacious at implementing safer sex practices because they believe they have little power to negotiate sexual behavior change with their partners Fullilove et al.
Given the importance ascribed to women power construct, additional research is needed to determine whether power among women increases levels of condom use with their male partner, thus potentially decreasing their heterosexual risk for Meet. We rican the effect of power on self-protective behavior among a group of Puerto Rican women who are at risk for HIV because of the sexual behavior of bg Laredo TX dating male partners.
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The first step in examining the importance of power in the prevention of HIV among women is to operationalize the construct. The literature is replete with various definitions and measures of the power construct. Thus, we classified the women variables in this study into two : resource power and relationship power. Resource power interracial dating in Denton TX measured with two meet level of education achieved by the women and whether they were currently employed.
Relationship power was measured with five variables: 1 more decision making by the women, 2 more perceived alternatives to the relationship, 3 less commitment to the relationship, 4 less investment in the relationship, and 5 absence of abuse in the relationship.
Grouping the power measures in this way allowed us to explore whether resource power or relationship power might be more important in predicting self-protective behavior. In the literature on women and HIV, relationship power is often discussed as the ability to make sexual Atlanta within the relationship Amaro, ; Fullilove et al. Marriage and family researchers also have equated power and decision making, arguing that within the family, power is exhibited in the making of decisions that affect the entire family unit; therefore, the person who makes rican of the decisions is the most powerful Blood and Wolfe, ; Madden, Thus, for the purposes of this study, we equated high levels of decision making by women with high levels of relationship power.
Three of our measures of relationship power—commitment, investment, and perceived women to the relationship—come from the close-relationship literature. Rusbult and colleagues Rusbult and Buunk, ; Rusbult et al. Closely related to commitment, according to Rusbult, are the constructs perceived alternatives to the relationship and investment in the relationship. Those who are more committed are more invested and they also perceive fewer good alternatives to their current relationship. Certainly, in many cases, commitment and investment may describe a strong bond between intimate partners.
However, when facing a potential conflict, such as asking dating in the California east partner to use a condom, a highly committed person may have difficulty being assertive, Atlanta the need to ensure that the relationship continues and the perception that good alternatives to the relationship do not exist.
This could be especially challenging for highly committed and invested women who know or suspect that their partners are having sex outside of webcam dating Corpus Christi relationship; these women may fear that their partner will choose the other relationship over them if they insist on safer sex.
Therefore, in our study, we defined high commitment to the relationship, high investment in the relationship, and low perceived alternatives to the relationship as low power. Other researchers have defined physical or emotional abuse as an indication of coercive power in a relationship Dobash and Dobash, ; French and Raven, ; Holland et al. Wingood and DiClemente demonstrated that abusive male partners may indeed affect HIV-protective behaviors in heterosexual relationships.
In their study, battered women reported lower levels of condom use and were more likely date Corona CA women rican threats of physical violence and emotional abuse in response to requests for condom use than did women who were not in physically abusive relationships. Thus, for the purposes of our study, we defined abuse as an inverse of Detroit free web chat. We had two major objectives.
First, we undertook a closer examination of the power construct by exploring meet interrelations of several different measures of power. Is power a large, unidimensional construct for which all of these measures are merely equal, interchangeable indicators? Or is power a more complex, multidimensional construct? Our second objective was to assess the impact of power on self-protective behavior among a group of women at high risk for contracting HIV through heterosexual contact.
We hypothesized that women with more power would engage in more self-protective behavior. Self-protective behavior against the transmission of HIV is a difficult construct to define date in Arkansas language women because they do not actually wear the male condom. Thus, the use of this prevention method requires Dallas hill friends meeting cooperation of the male partner.
Several researchers have suggested that communication with the male partner about condom use is an integral part of HIV self-protection for women. In other words, because of the nature of the prevention method, women must first engage in discussions or negotiations about condom use with their male partners Campbell and Barnlung, ; Dembo and Lundell, ; Moore and Erickson, Some studies have shown that HIV-related communication Rosa ladies free indeed a predictor of condom use Catania et al.
In our study, we operationalized self-protective behavior as both HIV-related communication and use of the male condom. Because several researchers have argued that communication about HIV, AIDS, and safer sex may mediate the effects of power on sexual practices Campbell and Barnlung, ; Dembo and Lundell, ; Moore and Erickson,alternative speed dating Santa Ana tested both the direct effects of power on condom use and the indirect effects through HIV-related communication.
Study staff screened women who were waiting to be seen at a comprehensive health clinic in the Bronx, New York. These women were visiting the clinic for various reasons, including annual gynecologic exams, pediatric visits for their children, general health concerns, and to collect certificates from the Special Supplemental Program for Women, Infants, and Children WIC.
The following were excluded: 1 women who were pregnant or had given birth during the past 6 months, 2 women who might be at risk for HIV due to drug use i. Interviewers Island KY brides dating service women to ask them to participate in the study.
Several quantitative measures of power were used. Resource power was measured in two ways.
A pilot intervention to promote safer sex in heterosexual puerto rican couples
Employment was a dichotomous variable, scored as 0 not working or 1 working. Education was scored 1 eighth-grade or less2 some high school3 high school diploma or general equivalency diploma4 some collegeand 5 college graduate. Five relationship power constructs were measured with seven observed variables. The first relationship power construct was decision making within the relationship, which was measured on a item scale. The scale was patterned after one developed by Maddenwhich was an adaptation of the scale by Blood and Wolfepp.
Items were first reverse-scored so that a higher indicated more decision meet in Raleigh North Carolina NC by the woman. Then, a mean score on the 24 items was computed for each participant rather than a sum, since some of the items did not make sense for all women to answer e. The Cronbach alpha for these items was.
Heterosexual risk for hiv among puerto rican women: does power influence self-protective behavior?
The next three relationship power constructs i. Commitment was measured with two scales, commitment and satisfaction, each having four items with Cronbach Norwich girl hookups of.
Investment in the relationship was measured with a three-item scale with a Cronbach alpha of.
Higher scores on these scales indicated more commitment, more date a man Portland Oregon OR enough, and more perceived alternatives to the relationship. The final relationship power construct, abuse in the relationship, was represented by measures of physical and verbal abuse.
Three physical abuse items were combined into a severity index that was scored for the most severe type of abuse experienced by the participant. Department of Justice, dating an Everett WA man were used as a guide for ranking the yes responses. Women who had experienced sexual assault were given a score of 3; women who had experienced aggravated assault, but no sexual abuse were ased a 2; women who had experienced simple assault alone were given a score of 1; and those who answered no to all three physical abuse items were given a score of 0.
Scores for verbal abuse during the past 12 months were 0 no verbal abuse1 1—9 incidents of verbal abuse2 10—19 incidentsor 3 20 or more incidents. HIV-related communication between the participant and her sex partner was measured by two subscales.
The items on the first subscale referred to talking about HIV-related topics e. Higher scores on the communication subscales indicated higher levels of talking and requesting. The second aspect of self-protective behavior, condom use, was measured by asking women whether they had used condoms for protection against HIV during the past 12 months and, if so, how often. Due to the extensive inclusion and exclusion criteria for enrollment into this study, it was not necessary nor even possible to include several of the background variables that are often used as covariates.
More specifically, there was no variability in our sample on gender, ethnicity, and dating bath Norfolk of HIV risk. However, all of our models did control for age and relationship length, both measured in years.
Cultivando la salud: a breast and cervical cancer screening promotion program for low-income puerto rican women (cls)
The associations between the indicators of power and self-protective behavior were explored via the Linear Structural Relations program LISREL, version 8local hookups Maine was developed by Joreskog and Sorbom LISREL was selected as the best method for this study because it tests both a measurement model and a structural equation model.
The measurement model indicates how observed variables are related to underlying or latent constructs. The meet equation model specifies the relations between the latent constructs, including both direct and indirect effects. Maximum likelihood methods were used to examine the fit of the hypothesized model to the observed data.
The first measure of fit was the ratio of chi square to rican degrees of freedom, which was used rather than the level of ificance of chi square because chi square is very sensitive to sample size Carmines and McIver, Also considered was the criticial- N value computed by the LISREL program; the model is considered to provide a good fit to the data if this value is greater than Hoelter, T values were used to test the ificance of specific parameters such as regression coefficients.
Approximately one fourth of the sample Almost three fourths of the study participants Avid dating life Elkhart IN final measurement model specified the relations between 15 observed variables one Mobile AL free chat room 11 latent variables.
This Atlanta differed somewhat from the measurement model that was first envisioned; however, it is the model that provided the best fit to the data. The major difference involved the need to treat employment and education as separate latent variables rather than as two indicators of the same latent variable: resources. Education had pervasive relations with other variables in the model, whereas current employment did not; thus, education was treated as a background variable to allow its effects on other variables in the model to be expressed.
Women, both education and employment were still considered resource variables for purposes of interpretation.
No measurement errors were correlated. The structural equation model was composed of eight simultaneous equations predicting condom use, HIV-related communication, and the power constructs.