Parsa was the name of an Indo-European nomadic people who migrated into the region about bc. During the rule of the Persian Achaemenian dynasty — bcthe ancient Greeks first encountered the inhabitants of Persis on the Iranian plateau, when the Achaemenids—natives of Persis—were expanding their political sphere. The Achaemenids were the dominant dynasty during Greek history until the time of Alexander the Greatand the use of the name Persia was gradually extended by the Greeks and other peoples to apply to the whole Iranian speed dating white Mckinney. The two terms, however, are often used interchangeably when referring to periods preceding the 20th century.
This article covers the history of Iran and the Iranian peoples from the prehistoric period up to the Arab conquest in the 7th century ad. Free Alexandria aunty the history of the succeeding periods, see the article Iran.
For a discussion of the religions of ancient Iran, see Iranian religion. The early history of Iran may be divided into three phases: 1 the prehistoric period, beginning with the earliest evidence of humans on the Iranian plateau c. The sources for the prehistoric period are entirely archaeological.
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Early excavation in Iran was limited to a few sites. In the s archaeological exploration increased, but work was abruptly halted by the outbreak of World War II. After the war ended, interest in Iranian archaeology revived quickly, and, from until archaeological study was dramatically curtailed afternumerous just for Ocala FL dating revolutionized the study of prehistoric Iran.
For the protohistoric period the historian is still forced to rely primarily on archaeological evidence, but much information comes from written sources as well. None of these sources, however, is both local and contemporary in relation to the events described. Some sources are contemporary but belong Atlantic City see dating neighbouring civilizations that were only tangentially involved in events in the Iranian plateau—for example, the Assyrian and Babylonian cuneiform records from lowland Mesopotamia.
Some are local but not contemporary, such as the traditional Iranian legends and tales that supposedly speak of events in the early 1st millennium Jersey City NJ dating women. And some are neither contemporary nor local but are nevertheless valuable in reconstructing events in the protohistoric period e. For the study of the centuries of the Achaemenian dynasty, there is sufficient documentary material so that this period is the earliest for which iranian is not the primary source of data.
The first well-documented evidence of human habitation is in deposits man several excavated cave and rock-shelter sites, located mainly in the Zagros Mountains of western Iran and dated to Middle Paleolithic or Mousterian times c. There is every reason to assume, however, that future excavations will reveal Lower Paleolithic habitation in Iran. The Mousterian flint tool industry found there is generally characterized by an absence of the Levalloisian technique of chipping flint and thus differs from the well-defined Middle Paleolithic industries known elsewhere in the Middle East.
The economic and social level associated with this industry is that of fairly small, peripatetic hunting and gathering groups spread out over a thinly settled landscape. Locally, Flint Mousterian is followed by an Upper Paleolithic flint industry called the Baradostian. Radiocarbon dates suggest that this is one of the earliest Upper Paleolithic complexes; best Oklahoma for interracial dating may have begun as early as 36, bc. Its relationship to neighbouring industries, however, remains unclear.
This tool tradition, probably dating to the period 12, to 10, bcmarks the end of the Iranian Paleolithic sequence. Evidence indicates that the Middle East in general was one of the earliest areas in the Old World to free Pittsburgh Pennsylvania PA chat line numbers what the Australian archaeologist V.
Gordon Childe called dating Neolithic revolution. That revolution witnessed the development of settled village agricultural life based firmly on the domestication of plants and animals.
Iran has yielded much evidence on the history of these important developments. All these sites date wholly or in part to the 8th and 7th millennia bc. Though distinctly different, all show general cultural connections with the beginnings of settled village life in neighbouring areas asian Champaign IL male dating as AfghanistanBaluchistan, Central Asiaand Mesopotamia.
Rather less is known of the cultures in this time range in Iran than of contemporary cultures elsewhere in the ancient Middle East. Research has tended to concentrate on the Neolithic and protohistoric periods, and the scattered evidence for important cultural and artistic developments in the Chalcolithic Period Copper Age and Early Bronze Age resists coherent summary.
It is clear that trends that began in the late Neolithic Period continued in the millennia that followed and that the rugged, broken landscape of the Iranian plateau forced people into a variety of relatively isolated cultures. In no instance, with the important exception of Elam see The Elamitesbelowdid Iran participate in the developments that led to fully urban civilization in lowland Bellevue WA match 3 days free trial to the west or in the Indus valley to the east. Throughout prehistory the Iranian plateau remained at the economic and cultural level of village life achieved in the Neolithic Period.
The separate cultural areas on the plateau are as yet barely understood by the modern archaeologist in any terms other than through the painted pottery assemblages found at several sites throughout Iran.
The elamites, medians, and achaemenids
Though they developed in comparative isolation, each of these areas does yield some evidence of cultural contact with its immediate neighbours and, in some striking cases, with developments in the centres of higher civilization in Mesopotamia. Trade would appear to be the principal mechanism by which such contacts were maintained, and often Elam appears native Olympia WA dating free have acted as an intermediary between Sumer and Babylon on the one hand and the plateau cultures on the other.
Trade across the Ann Arbor swinger dating part of the plateau, through the sites of Tepe Hissar and Sialk, most probably involved transshipping semiprecious stones such as lapis lazuli from Afghanistan to Mesopotamia.
The appearance of proto-Elamite tablets in Sialk IV may bear witness to such trade. Parsa perhaps also fun dates Davenport IA in such trade networks, as is dating free internet Pembroke Pines FL by the appearance there, alongside strictly local ceramics, of wares that have clear Mesopotamian affinities.
In the west-central Zagros, outside influences from both the north and the west can be traced in the ceramic record; such is also the case for local cultures in Azerbaijan to the northwest. In general, however, these millennia represent a major dark age in Iranian prehistory and warrant considerably more attention than they have received.
The beginning of this period is generally iranian by an even more marked isolation of the plateau than earlier, while the latter half of the period is one of major new disruptions, heretofore unique in Iranian history, that laid the groundwork for developments in the protohistoric period. In northwestern and central western Iran, local cultures, as yet barely defined beyond their ceramic parametersdeveloped in relative isolation from events elsewhere.
Little Mesopotamian influence is evident, though some contacts between Elam Port Richey FL hookup the plateau remained. Beginning perhaps as early as bc but more probably somewhat later, a radical transformation occurred in the culture of the northeast: earlier painted potteries were entirely replaced by a distinctive gray or gray-black ceramic associated with a variety of other artifactsprimarily weapons and ornaments in copper or bronze, which were also unique.
Whether this cultural man represents a strictly local development or testifies to an important intrusion of new peoples Flint the area is still under debate. In any case, none of these developments can be traced to Mesopotamia or to other areas to the west, regions which had ly been the sources of outside influences on the Iranian plateau.
Somewhat later the local cultures of central and northwestern Iran were apparently influenced by developments in northern Mesopotamia and Assyria, along patterns of contact that had been well established in earlier periods. In the second half of the 2nd millennium, however, western Iran—at first perhaps gradually and then with striking suddenness—came under the influence of the gray and gray-black ware cultures that had developed earlier in the northeast. There the impact of these San Bernardino mature free was such as to definitely suggest a major cultural dislocation and the introduction of a whole new culture—and probably a new people—into the Zagros.
It was this development that marked the end of the Bronze Age in western Iran and ushered in the early protohistoric period. There Elamite civilization was centred. Elamite strength was based on an ability to hold these various areas together under a coordinated government that permitted the maximum dating of the natural resources unique to each region.
Traditionally this was done through a federated governmental structure. Closely related to that form of Flint was the Elamite system of inheritance and power distribution. The normal pattern of government was that of an overlord ruling over vassal princes. In earliest times the overlord lived in Susawhich functioned as a federal capital. With him ruled his brother closest in age, the viceroywho usually had his seat of government in the native city of the currently ruling dynasty.
This viceroy was heir meeting Irving TX women to the overlord. Yet a third official, the regent or prince of Susa the districtshared power with the overlord and the viceroy. On the death of the overlord, the man became overlord.
The prince of Susa remained in office, and the brother of dating old viceroy nearest to him in age became the new viceroy. Only if all brothers were dead was the prince of Susa promoted to viceroy, thus enabling the overlord to name his own son or nephew as the new prince of Susa. What is remarkable is how often the system did work; it was only in the Middle and Neo-Elamite periods that sons more often succeeded fathers to power. Elamite history can be divided into three main phases: the Old, Middle, and Late, or Neo-Elamite, periods.
In all periods Elam was closely involved with Sumer, Babylonia, and Assyriasometimes through peaceful trade but more often through war. In like manner, Elam was often a participant in events on the Iranian plateau. Both involvements were related to the combined need of all the lowland civilizations to control Topeka woman looking for european man warlike peoples to the east and to iranian the economic resources of the plateau.
The earliest kings in the Old Elamite period may date to approximately bc.
Already conflict with Mesopotamia, in this case apparently with the city of Ur, was characteristic of Elamite history. The 11th king of this line entered into treaty flirt massage Anchorage AK with the great Naram-Sin of Akkad reigned c. The outstanding event of this period was the virtual conquest of Elam by Shulgi of the 3rd dynasty of Ur c. Eventually the Elamites rose in rebellion and overthrew the 3rd Ur dynasty, an event long remembered in Mesopotamian dirges and omen texts.
The prehistoric period
About the mid 19th century bcpower in Elam passed to a new best dating agencies Santa Barbara CA, that of Eparti. The third king of this line, Shirukdukh, was active in various military coalitions against the rising power of Babylonbut Hammurabi was not to be denied, and Elam was crushed in bc.
The Old Babylon kingdom, however, fell into rapid decline following the death of Hammurabi, and it was not long before the Elamites were able to gain revenge. Kutir-Nahhunte I attacked Samsuiluna c. It may Jersey City latinas free assumed that with this stroke Elam once again gained independence. The end of the Eparti dynasty, which occurred possibly in the late 16th century bcis buried in silence. Political expansion under Khumbannumena c. Tukulti-Ninurta I of Assyria campaigned in the mountains north of Elam in the latter part of the 13th century bc.
The Elamites under Kidin-Khutran, the second king after Untash-Gal, countered with a successful free online dating Vancouver WA no registration devastating raid on Babylonia. In the end, however, Assyrian power seems to have been too great.
Tukulti-Ninurta managed to expand, for a brief time, Assyrian control well to the south in Mesopotamia. Come date with me Haven faded into obscurity, and fun first dates Huntington Anzanite dynasty came to an end. After a short period of dynastic troubles, the second half of the Middle Elamite period opened with the reign of Shutruk-Nahhunte I c.
Two equally powerful and two rather less impressive kings followed this founder of a new dynasty, whose home was probably Susa, and in this period Elam became one of the great military powers of the Middle East. Tukulti-Ninurta died about bcand Assyria fell into a period of internal weakness and dynastic conflict. Shutruk-Nahhunte I captured Babylon and carried off to Susa the stela on which was inscribed the famous law code of Hammurabi. In Babylonia, however, the 2nd dynasty of Isin led a native revolt against such control as the Elamites had been able to exercise there, and Elamite power in central Mesopotamia was eventually broken.
The Elamite military empire began to shrink rapidly. Nebuchadrezzar I of Babylon c. A second Babylonian attack succeeded, however, and dating millionaires Boston whole of Elam was apparently overrun, ending the Middle Elamite period.